Definition and Functions of PCB (Printed Circuit Board)

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PCB Is ? Definition of Printed Circuit Board, types and functions of PCB Board on electronic circuit

Each type of electronic device requires energy from electricity in order to work. In order for the electrical power source  to flow through certain circuits so that they can make these electronic devices work, a complex circuit is needed.

Well, the next role of this PCB is to organize such electrical circuits. To make it easier to understand what PCB is, here we explain the detailed review for you.

Definition of PCB (Printed Circuit Board)


Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is a board that serves as a container for connecting electronic components through the conductor line layer. The shape is in the form of a board with a green color consisting of several components.

PCB stands for Printed Circuit Board.  The types of components that can be connected to each other on the PCB can be the same or different. PCB construction consists of track lines, sockets, lines and paths to connect electrically different electronic components.

Before it can be used, the PCB goes through a process called etching. The PCB etching process is the process of blocking or creating conductor paths that later connect each component on the board.

The working principle of PCB is that electronic components are electrically connected to the PCB board using two different methods called through-hole technology and surface mount technology.

Layer PCB Structure


At first glance, a PCB board does look just like an ordinary board. In fact, the boards are made with different layers and different materials. Well, here is the structure of the PCB forming layer that we summarized from wikipedia.org.

  • Standard Layer (Substrate)

The first layer is the base layer called the substrate. These layers can be both Flame Resistant (FR2) and FR4. FR” is made of a piece of paper splattered with plastic resin.

While FR4 is made of fiberglass woven material that has been given a layer of epoxy resin. This FR4 has a lower water absorption capacity which makes it a high insulator and withstands temperatures of up to 140 °C.

  • Copper

The second layer of PCB is copper. This copper is flat in shape and glued to the substrate by a lamination process at a certain temperature. PCBs are of two types so the number of layers of this copper also depends on the type.

For example on single sided PCB it is only coated with one layer of copper and placed on one side of the substrate only. While the double sided PCB is coated with copper on both sides.

  • Soldermask

This is the layer after copper. Its function is to keep the copper layer and its conductor lines from accidentally becoming contact. This soldermask also serves to prevent soldering shorts from occurring.

  • Silkscreen

The last layer is silkscreen. The function of this layer is to mark (as an indicator) for the electronic components assembled on the PPCB. That way the assembly process becomes easier.

Types of PCB Boards


Printed Circuit Board has a variety of variants that can be used. The division of various kinds of PCBs is classified into 2 parts, namely pcb types based on the number of layer structures and based on the degree of flexibility.

Previously, it was mentioned a little that there are various types of PCB boards. First is the type of PCB based on the number of layers. In addition to being divided into several types based on the number of layers, PCBs are also divided into several types based on flexibility.

  1. Single Sided PCB

Single sided PCB is a type of PCB that only has one layer of copper components on one side of the substrate. This type of PCB is more widely used on simple electronic circuits.

  1. Double Sided PCB

This next type is a PCB that has two copper layers on each side of the substrate. In this type, there are usually holes whose function is to connect the two layers of copper.

  1. Multilayer PCB

This type has a copper layer of more than 2 layers. There is an insulator layer that separates between the copper layers. This type is usually used in complex electronic circuits.

  1. Aluminium Backed PCB

Aluminum Backed PCB is a type of PCB board where the Substrate in an aluminum supported PCB is made of aluminum material. This type of PCB has insulating material components that have high thermal resistance so as to avoid heat when transferring data.

  1. High-Frequency PCB

High Frequency PCB is a type of PCB designed for high data transmission. This PCB is capable of transmitting signals of more than one GHz. Generally, the materials used in high frequency PCBs are polyphenylene oxide, Teflon, and glass-reinforced epoxy laminates.

  1. Rigid PCB

Rigid PCB is a type whose circuit board is rigid and cannot be flexed. The easiest example we find on a Rigid PCB is the motherboard of a computer or laptop.

Motherboards are multilayer PCBs designed to distribute electricity from power supplies and help create conduction paths between different parts of a computer including the CPU, RAM, and GPU.

  1. Flex PCB

Flex PCB is a type of PCB board that can be bent without damaging. Different from rigid pcb which uses fiberglass material, the material used in flexible PCBs is generally made of plastic.

The conductor materials used in these PCBs are mainly composed of polyester, polyamide or PEEK (Polyether ether ketone).

  1. Rigid-flex PCB

Rigid-flex PCB is a combination of the two. Generally, some rigid PCBs are connected with flex PCB. This type of Rigid Flex PCB generally has a more expensive price and is difficult to design compared to Rigid PCB or Flex PCB.

PCB Board Functions


The main function of the PCB is as a container for connecting electronic components to be connected to each other through the conductor path layer.

From the above it can be known that the usefulness of this PCB cannot be replaced. Here is another function of the PCB board.

  • As a Medium for Composing Components

This is the main function of the PCB, which is as a constituent medium for electronic components. That way, every component in it can be connected to each other and installed more neatly and organized.

  • Able to Connect Between Components

Each component on the PCB board can be the same or different types. However, each of these components can be connected to each other. PCBs can also connect each other between active components and passive components so that they can be more efficient.

  • Cable Replacement

The last function of the PCB board is as a replacement for cables. That is, every component in the electronic circuit must generally be connected to a transition medium, such as a cable. However, with the PCB, these components can be automatically connected without wires but through circuit lines.

Also Read: Definition of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification)

Now already know not what PCB is and everything related about this electronic component. PCB is a component that has a very important role because of the container that makes up electronic components. Without this board, even electronic components will not be able to work.

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