Static electricity

Definition of Static Electricity and Examples

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Static Electricity is ? Understanding what is meant by static electricity Formula, Examples of Symptoms in everyday life

Natural phenomena and everyday life often go unnoticed by many people that they come from the concept of static electricity. In general, this phenomenon of the onset of electricity is due to charge, electron movement, induction, and potential differences.

This electricity does present either naturally or artificially but cannot move through conductors or conductors. Details about what is meant by static electricity and examples you can see in the review below.

Static Electricity Is?

Static electricity

What does static electricity mean? Static electricity is electricity consisting of immovable (fixed) charges due to an imbalance between negative and positive charges (accumulation of excess charge) in a non-conducting object.

Static electricity was first discovered independently by the physicist Belanjda Pieter van Musschenbroek of Leiden University in 1746 and the German scientist Ewald Georg von Kleist in 1745.

Then in 1832 Michael Faraday proved that static electricity is the same as that generated by batteries or generators.

Some of the benefits of static electricity in everyday life can be found in car painting aids, Electrical Generators, Photo Copy Machines, smoke and dust pollution control, and also room air filtering tools.

To understand in more detail, see the following explanation of the basic basis for the formation of static electricity.

  • Electric charge

Electric charge is a factor that determines whether electricity will occur or be available in an object. For example, a stable object such as a ruler will not have great potential.

However, you wear a cloth and then swipe it quickly or with a magnet. The ruler undergoes a change in charge so that there is a different potential that is able to flow the charge.

  • Unbalanced conditions

An example of a ruler is also called an unbalanced state. When there is no fabric, the status is still stable and every component does not move. After being given the potential difference, it occurs unbalanced so that the charge must perform electrical motion until it reaches equilibrium.

Basic Concepts of Static Electricity

Static electricity

Basically all physically possessed objects consist of an Atom. Inside the atom there are protons, electrons and neutrons. Protons are positively charged, electrons are negatively charged, and neutrons are neutral.

Opposite charges attract each other (negative to positive). Similar charges reject each other (positive to positive or negative to negative). And sometimes the positive and negative charges have such a balanced value that the neutrons of that object are neutral.

This static electricity occurs due to an imbalance between negative and positive charges in an object. These charges can accumulate on the surface of an object until they find a way to be released or emptied. One way to release it is through an electronic circuit.

You can find how static electricity works when you rub two objects, then each other can transfer negative charges (electrons).

For example, When you rub shoes on a furry carpet, your body will collect extra electrons, those electrons attached to your body until they can be released.

Once you’ve finished rubbing your shoes on the carpet and then touching a fluffy cat, you’ll be surprised for a while because there’s static electricity arising from the excess electrons your body releases in the cat.

The Difference between Static and Dynamic Electricity

The difference between static and dynamic electricity in general lies in the nature of the electron charge working, in static electricity the electric current cannot move / flow, while in dynamic electricity the electric current can move and flow in a circuit.

There are static then there are definitely dynamic ones. To find out more about what are the differences between static and dynamic electricity, see the following reviews:

  • Dynamic electricity

Dynamic electricity examples are batteries and generating sources.  Battery components are deliberately made to cause potential differences.

After splicing with the conductor, the positive charge immediately goes to negative until it becomes balanced. The electricity can change like current and voltage so that it is expressed as dynamic.

  • Static Electricity

Although static electricity is also capable of flowing to other objects, one of the constraints is the ability to remain stable and maintain the supply of electron charges. There cannot directly drain lightning to lights or electronic devices. This happens because the charge is unstable and moves freely so that equilibrium occurs.

Static and dynamic are based on whether they are capable of being streamed to other components or not. If the charge moves through a conductor and is then converted to energy, it is of a dynamic type. If it is not capable, then the current flow is definitely a static type.

Examples of Static Electricity Symptoms

Static electricity

An example of static electricity symptoms can be found by swiping the surface of two non-conducting objects. For example, by rubbing a plastic ruler on a woolen cloth then you stick the ruler on a small piece of paper then the paper will stick to the ruler.

  • Electricity on Lightning

A vivid example of static electricity is lightning. Clouds containing water then rub against the air and free particles and create unbalanced charges.

Electricity immediately appears and immediately moves in any direction to balance. For example, grabbing to the earth or buildings that have high potential differences. This is an example of static electricity because you can’t use it.

  • Electricity from Friction Rulers and Fabrics

The second experiment can be made using a ruler or other conductor object such as iron and then rubbed with a cloth. The surface will be hot and electric sparks appear. When combing, you sometimes find it difficult to remove the comb. Hair is also capable of changing charges if it is often exposed to friction.

The concept of induction is also useful for explaining static electricity. You use a magnet and then swipe it against an object. The nature of the magnet will appear and cause different charges. With the same principle, you use two different objects where one is able to distinguish different potentials that will move.

  • Electricity from Friction of Feet and Carpets

The next experiment you can prove by rubbing your feet on a carpet repeatedly, then you hold a fluffy cat / dog, then you will be surprised because there is static electricity arising from the process.

  • Use of Plastic Combs in Hair

When you do hair combing activities, you may not notice that sometimes the hair we comb seems to be carried away standing with the friction of the comb. This is where static electricity is formed due to the interaction of the charge on the comb with our hair.

  • Rubbing Balloons on Hair

You can then try the next experiment by rubbing the balloon into your dry hair repeatedly, then bringing it close to a small stream of water.

The balloon that you have rubbed with hair has a negative charge that attracts positively charged water molecules so that the water will appear to be attracted by the balloon.

  • Electricity on Tube TVs

Symptoms of static electricity also occur when turning the television on and off. The electricity is on the surface of the tube but has little potential. You check by hand then it feels like something is interesting.

This concept is similar to sending signals from touch on a smartphone. Part of the screen is electrified and then the touch signal is changed as a command. Because it is static, you need a power source to do this.

  • Sticking a balloon to the wall

You can prove the latest experiment by repeatedly rubbing a balloon on your clothes and then sticking the balloon on the wall of the house.

The balloon will stick to the wall because when you rub on the clothes, you have added excess electrons (negative charge) to the surface of the balloon.

When attached to a balloon, the wall has more positive charge than the balloon. When the two come into contact, the balloon will stick because the opposite rule attracts (positive to negative).

Static Electricity Formula

Static electricity

According to Coulomb’s law, the formula of static electricity in general is The magnitude of the electrostatic force of attraction between two charges q and Q placed at a certain distance (r). In formula notation is Felect = k•Q 1•Q 2/r2


Q = Source Payloadq = Test PayloadR = Distance between chargesC = Capacitor capacitance

There are two important three things to keep in mind when looking at the static electricity formula above:

  1. The values of q1 and q2 are multiplied. So, if q1 and q2 are both positive, then the force will be positive. The particles will resist. The same is true if q1 and q2 are both negative.
  2. If q1 is positive and q2 is negative, then the force will be negative. The same is true if q1 is negative and q2 is positive. Particles will be of interest.
  3. The force is proportional to the square root of the distance between particles. This means that the closer the particles are to each other, the stronger the force.

To calculate the formula of static electricity, in certain cases sometimes you need to know the three derivatives of the formula, namely Electric Force, Electric Charge and also Potential Energy. For more details, you can see below:

  • Electric force

Static electricity

To understand this material, you need to check about static electricity related to electrical force. What is meant by force is two objects pulling each other so as to cause a work and a force.

The basic formula is two electric charges, the coefficient, and the distance. You multiply the two charges and the coefficient and then divide by the square of the distance. The result is an electric force between the two charges. If there are three or more, be sure to wear a sine or cosine so that rarely what is taken is nearby.

  • Electric charge

Static electricity

The formula of static electricity is highly dependent on charges with coulomb units. Each particle has its own potential and charge so that its value is determined directly. When calculating, you usually get the default value.

  • Potential Energy

Static Electricity

In the question of static electricity class 9, there is a potential energy material, which is to calculate how much potential effort an object has. In electricity, this energy is related to a charge of an object. The higher the value, the greater the opportunity to cause electricity.

Examples of Static Electricity Problems

After you know what static electricity means and its formula, here we also review various examples of static electricity problems and their discussions that we quote from the Ministry of Education and Culture website and the teacher’s room which hopefully can help you understand more easily about this material.

  1.  A country with 4 seasons, the phenomenon of static electricity will often be encountered in winter. This usually happens when someone opens the door of a car. The difference in the charge on the skin of the human hand with the car door results in electrons flowing which will cause an electric shock. This phenomenon occurs because. . . . .

  • Winter air contains electric charges.
  • Winter air makes it easier for electrons to flow.
  • The humidity level of the air in winter is so low that electrons accumulate on the surface of the car.
  • The humidity level of the air in winter is so low that electrons easily flow on the human body.
  • The surface temperature of the car is so high that electrons will accumulate.

The answer is C i.e. “The humidity level of the air in winter is so low that electrons accumulate on the surface of the car”.

Discussion: Winter causes a decrease in air humidity so that the air tends to be dry. This low humidity makes it difficult for electrons to move so that electrons will accumulate on the surface of the car door.

On the other hand, an object tends to have the property of neutralizing the charge inside. This is the cause of electrons flowing from the human body holding the car door so that the effect of static electricity arises.

  1. A gold bar has 79 electrons per atom with an atomic mass of 197 u. What is the total electron charge and Net on a gold bar weighing 12 Kg?


m = 12 kg = 12000 grams

n = 79

Mr = 197u = 197 gram/mol


qall = ? ;  q = ?


  • Net payload of gold
  • Total payload of 12 kg of gold

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  1. An equilateral ABC triangle has a side length of 3 dm. At angular points A and B are charged +4 μC and -1.5 μC, respectively, at the peak C there is a charge of +2× 10-5 C . What is the total electrostatic force at the C apex of the triangle?


qA = 4 μC = 4 × 10-6 C qB = -1.5  μC = –
1.5 × 10-6 C

qC = 2 × 10-5C
= 3 dm = 3 × 10-1 m

Asked: FC= … ?


Static Electricity

If we look at the simulation of the triangle image above, q A and qC reject with the force F1, then :

Static Electricity

  1. Two electric charges P and Q separated by 10 cm are subjected to an attractive pulling force of 8 N. If the charge Q is shifted 5 cm towards the charge P (1 μC = 10-6 C and k = 9 x 109 Nm2. C-2), then the electric force that occurs is… Settlement:

Diketahui :rPQ = 10 cm = 0,1 m = 1 x 10-1 mF = 8 NqQ = 40 µC = 40 x 10-6
k = 9 x 109 Nm2. C-2

Asked :

F (if the charge Q is shifted 5 cm towards the charge P)

Answer :First calculate the electric charge P, after that calculate the electric force between the two electric charges, if the electric charge Q is shifted 5 cm towards the charge P.

Electric charge P :q P =  F r 2 /  k (q Q)q P = (8)(1 x 10-1)2 / (9 x 10 9)(40 x 10-6)q P = (8)(1 x 10-2) / 360 x 10 3 q P = (8 x 10-2) / (36 x 10 4)
q P = (1   x 10-2) / (4.5 x 10 4)
qP = (1/4.5) x 10-6 Coulomb

Electric force between electric charges P and Q :If the charge in Q is shifted to the left 5 cm then the distance between the two charges becomes 5 cm = 0.05 meters = 5 x 10-2  metersF = k (q P)(
qQ) / r 2 F = (9 x 10 9)( (1/4.5) x 10-6)(40 x 10-6) / (5 x 10-2)2 F = (2 x 10 3)(40  x 10-6) / (25
10 -4)F = (80 x 10-3) / (25 x 10-4)F = 3.2 x 101F = 32 Newtons

  1. Two point charges of +2 C and -5 C respectively are 10 cm apart from each other. Determine the force of attraction of the two charges!


q1 = + 2 C

q2 =  -5 C
r = 10 cm

Asked: F = . . . ?


Static Electricity

Static electricity is very closely related to the surrounding life but is not directly realized. This type is indeed not  a source of electricity but as proof that the electrical phenomenon does exist. On the other hand, the scale is also not large and its function is limited to complements


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